Overview of anxiety disorders

anxiety disorders

Overview of anxiety disorders

Overview of anxiety disorders

Everyone often experiences fear and anxiety. Fear is an emotional, physical, and behavioral response to an immediate perceived external threat (e.g., an intruder, a car spinning on ice). Anxiety is a tense, uncomfortable emotional state of fear and discomfort; The cause is often not clear. Anxiety is less associated with the exact timing of a threat; it can be anticipated before a threat, persist after a threat has passed, or occur without an identifiable threat. Anxiety is often accompanied by physical and behavioral changes similar to those caused by fear.

Some levels of anxiety are adaptive; it can help people prepare, practice, and practice to improve their function and can help them exercise reasonable caution in potentially hazardous situations. However, beyond a certain level, anxiety causes dysfunction and excessive stress. At this point, it is inappropriate and considered a disorder.

Anxiety occurs in a wide range of physical and mental disorders, but it is the predominant symptom in a wide range of symptoms. Anxiety disorders are more common than any other type of mental disorder. However, they are often unrecognized and therefore untreated. Left untreated, chronic maladaptive anxiety can contribute to or interfere with the treatment of a number of general bodily disorders.

Mental stress that occurs immediately or shortly after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event is no longer considered an anxiety disorder. Such disorders are now classified as stress and traumatic disorders (see Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Professional.heading on page Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)).

anxiety disorders

anxiety disorders


The causes of anxiety disorders are not fully known, but both general psychiatric and medical factors are involved. Many people develop anxiety disorders without any warning symptoms. Anxiety can be a response to environmental stresses, such as the end of an important relationship or exposure to a life-threatening disaster.

Certain physical disorders can directly cause anxiety; These include:

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Adrenal myeloma
  • Adrenal cortex
  • Heart failure
  • Arrhythmia
  • Hen
  • COPD

Other causes include drug use; The effects of corticosteroids, cocaine, amphetamines, and even caffeine can also mimic anxiety disorders. Withdrawal symptoms from alcohol, tranquilizers, and some illicit substances can also cause anxiety.

Signs and Symptoms

Anxiety can arise suddenly, as in a panic, or gradually over minutes, hours, or even days. Anxiety can last from seconds to years; Longer duration is characteristic of anxiety disorders. Anxiety ranges from vague feelings to real panic. The ability to tolerate a certain level of anxiety varies from person to person.

Anxiety disorders can be very stressful and damaging which can lead to depression. In addition, an anxiety disorder and a depressive disorder may coexist, or depression may develop first, followed by the appearance of symptoms and signs of an associated anxiety disorder.


  • Exclude other causes
  • Severity rating

Deciding when anxiety is so prominent or so severe that it constitutes a disorder depends on many factors, and doctors vary in the point at which they make a diagnosis. Doctors must first review the medical history, physical examination, and appropriate tests to determine if anxiety is caused by a physical disorder. They must also determine whether the anxiety could be better explained by another mental disorder.

An anxiety disorder is present and is treated if the following are met:

  • Other causes not identified.
  • Anxiety is very uncomfortable.
  • Anxiety affects function.
  • Anxiety does not stop spontaneously occurring for several days.

Diagnosis of a specific anxiety disorder is based on characteristic symptoms and signs. Clinicians often use the specific criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which describe characteristic symptoms and require the exclusion of other possible causes. out symptoms.

A family history of an anxiety disorder also helps in making the diagnosis because some patients inherit a predisposition similar to those of their relatives, as well as a general sensitivity to anxiety disorders. with other anxiety disorders. However, some patients seem to have similar disorders to their loved ones through learning behaviour.

Treatments and Therapies

Treatments are different for different anxiety disorders, but typical treatment is usually a combination of disorder-specific psychotherapy and medication. The most commonly used drugs are benzodiazepines and SSRIs.


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